Accommodating individual differences classroom
There is a considerable urgency to develop teaching strategies for all students within English immersion programs and provide appropriate professional development for teachers.Of particular interest to this study were intervention strategies for ELL students showing early signs of reading failure and being identified as having learning disabilities and the resulting professional development concerns of teachers.Finally, assessment tools that represent particular requisite skills are very useful in monitoring individual students' progress.Ongoing and frequent assessment provides teachers with current, practical information to guide their further intervention (Deno, 1997; Fuchs, 1989).Phonemic awareness is the ability to focus on and manipulate the individual sounds, or phonemes, in spoken words.This kind of understanding of the sound structure of the language facilitates acquisition of the second "big idea," the alphabetic principle.Assessment serves three important purposes in developing a reading intervention program: (a) identifying students in need of supplemental instruction, (b) guiding instructional planning, and (c) monitoring student progress.
Ongoing assessment that provides teachers with clear information about students' performance levels and progress is an earmark of an effective reading intervention program.
Phonological awareness is the understanding of the different ways that spoken language can be broken into smaller components.
An important element of phonological awareness is phonemic awareness.
By the later elementary years, those who experience severe reading failure are often given a learning disabilities (LD) label and placed in special education services. Census data, approximately one third of California's population is of Hispanic origin.
English language learners (ELLs), or students whose primary language is other than English and are learning English as a second language, often experience particular challenges in developing reading skills in the early grades. In addition, 25% of California's K-12 students are limited-English proficient, and 80% of these students speak Spanish as their primary language (Gandara, 1997).
Measures of phonemic awareness strongly predict young children's future success in learning to read or, conversely, the likelihood that they will fail (Adams, 1990; Stanovich, 1986). Assessment tools that reflect the most important aspects of the grade-level curriculum provide information about how an individual student performs within the classroom context.